About Introducing Biblical Theology
This will result in a better understanding and interpretation of particular portions and passages. The entire Bible is discussed in outline form, book by book, to determine its general theme. In this method, it is not our purpose to examine small details but rather to get the broad sweep of the book and its general application, a bird's-eye view. Following a brief discussion of the Bible as a whole, Dr. This book contains descriptions of the movement of heavenly bodies and of the firmament , as a knowledge revealed to Enoch in his trips to Heaven guided by Uriel , and it describes a Solar calendar that was later described also in the Book of Jubilees which was used by the Dead Sea sect.
The use of this calendar made it impossible to celebrate the festivals simultaneously with the Temple of Jerusalem. The year was composed from days, divided in four equal seasons of ninety-one days each. Each season was composed of three equal months of thirty days, plus an extra day at the end of the third month. The whole year was thus composed of exactly fifty-two weeks, and every calendar day occurred always on the same day of the week. Each year and each season started always on Wednesday , which was the fourth day of the creation narrated in Genesis , the day when the lights in the sky, the seasons, the days and the years were created.
The Book of Dream Visions, containing a vision of a history of Israel all the way down to what the majority have interpreted as the Maccabean Revolt , is dated by most to Maccabean times about — BC. According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church it was written before the Flood. The second dream vision in this section of the Book of Enoch is an allegorical account of the history of Israel, that uses animals to represent human beings and human beings to represent angels.
4. Analysis And Synthesis Of Numbers
One of several hypothetical reconstructions of the meanings in the dream is as follows based on the works of R. Charles and G. Schodde :. There are a great many links between the first book and this one, including the outline of the story and the imprisonment of the leaders and destruction of the Nephilim. The dream includes sections relating to the book of Watchers:. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast into that fiery abyss.
And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep. The fall of the evil ones. And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their horns. And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them. The creation of the Nephilim et al.
Similar references exist in Jubilees — The book describes their release from the Ark along with three bulls — white, red, and black, which are Shem, Ham, and Japeth — in It also covers the death of Noah, described as the white bull, and the creation of many nations:. And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens It then describes the story of Moses and Aaron —15 , including the miracle of the river splitting in two for them to pass, and the creation of the stone commandments.
Eventually they arrived at a "pleasant and glorious land" where they were attacked by dogs Philistines , foxes Ammonites, Moabites , and wild boars Esau. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself unseemly.
And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that ram which had forsaken its glory. David replacing Saul as leader of Israel. It describes the creation of Solomon's Temple and also the house which may be the tabernacle : "And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: and a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him".
This interpretation is accepted by Dillmann p. It also describes the escape of Elijah the prophet; in 1 Kings —24, he is fed by "ravens", so if Kings uses a similar analogy, he may have been fed by the Seleucids. This part of the book can be taken to be the kingdom splitting into the northern and southern tribes, that is, Israel and Judah, eventually leading to Israel falling to the Assyrians in BC and Judah falling to the Babylonians a little over a century later BC.
There is also mention of 59 of 70 shepherds with their own seasons; there seems to be some debate on the meaning of this section, some suggesting that it is a reference to the 70 appointed times in , , and Another interpretation is the 70 weeks in Daniel However, the general interpretation is that these are simply angels. This section of the book and another section near the end describe the appointment by God of the 70 angels to protect the Israelites from enduring too much harm from the "beasts and birds".
The later section describes how the 70 angels are judged for causing more harm to Israel than he desired, found guilty, and "cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full of pillars of fire. Jews were allowed to return with the Temple vessels that the Babylonians had taken. Construction of the Second Temple began"; this represents the history of ancient Israel and Judah ; the temple was completed in BC. The first part of the next section of the book seems, according to Western scholars, to clearly describe the Maccabean revolt of BC against the Seleucids.
The following two quotes have been altered from their original form to make the hypothetical meanings of the animal names clear. And I saw in the vision how the Seleucids flew upon those faithful and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep in pieces and devoured them.
And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the Seleucids cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those faithful , and their eyes were opened. And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those Macedonians and vultures and Seleucids and Ptolemies still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out.
And those Seleucids fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it. All the Macedonians and vultures and Seleucids and Ptolemies were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram. According to this theory, the first sentence most likely refers to the death of High Priest Onias III, whose murder is described in 1 Maccabees —35 died c. The "great horn" clearly is not Mattathias , the initiator of the rebellion, as he dies a natural death, described in 1 Maccabees It is also not Alexander the Great, as the great horn is interpreted as a warrior who has fought the Macedonians, Seleucids, and Ptolemies.
Judas Maccabeus BC— BC fought all three of these, with a large number of victories against the Seleucids over a great period of time; "they had no power over it". He is also described as "one great horn among six others on the head of a lamb", possibly referring to Maccabeus's five brothers and Mattathias.
If taken in context of the history from Maccabeus's time, Dillman Chrest Aethiop says the explanation of Verse 13 can be found in 1 Maccabees iii 7; vi. Maccabeus was eventually killed by the Seleucids at the Battle of Elasa, where he faced "twenty thousand foot soldiers and two thousand cavalry". At one time, it was believed this passage might refer to John Hyrcanus ; the only reason for this was that the time between Alexander the Great and John Maccabeus was too short.
However, it has been asserted that evidence shows that this section does indeed discuss Maccabeus. It then describes: "And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face. It may also be Jonathan Apphus taking over command of the rebels to battle on after the death of Judas.
John Hyrcanus Hyrcanus I , Hasmonean dynasty may also make an appearance; the passage "And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to His house" may describe John's reign as a time of great peace and prosperity. Certain scholars also claim Alexander Jannaeus of Judaea is alluded to in this book.
The end of the book describes the new Jerusalem, culminating in the birth of a Messiah :. And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over it and over all the oxen.
Still another interpretation, which has just as much as credibility, is that the last chapters of this section simply refer to the infamous battle of Armageddon , where all of the nations of the world march against Israel; this interpretation is supported by the War Scroll, which describes what this epic battle may be like, according to the group s that existed at Qumran. This section can be seen as being made up of five subsections,  mixed by the final redactor:. Some of the fallen angels that are given in 1 Enoch have other names, such as Rameel 'morning of God' , who becomes Azazel , and is also called Gadriel 'wall of God' in Chapter Another example is that Araqiel 'Earth of God' becomes Aretstikapha 'world of distortion' in Chapter Azaz , as in Azazel , means strength, so the name Azazel can refer to 'strength of God'.
But the sense in which it is used most probably means 'impudent' showing strength towards , which results in 'arrogant to God'. This is also a key point in modern thought that Azazel is Satan.
Book of Enoch
Nathaniel Schmidt states "the names of the angels apparently refer to their condition and functions before the fall," and lists the likely meanings of the angels' names in the Book of Enoch, noting that "the great majority of them are Aramaic. The name suffix -el means 'God' see list of names referring to El , and is used in the names of high-ranking angels.
The archangels ' names all include -el , such as Uriel 'flame of God' and Michael 'who is like God'. Another name is given as Gadreel , who is said to have tempted Eve ; Schmidt lists the name as meaning 'the helper of God. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other writings attributed to Enoch, see Book of Enoch disambiguation. An ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Reception of Enoch in antiquity. See also: Metatron.
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Charles and 3 Enoch surviving in Hebrew , c. The Old Testament Pseudoepigrapha , vol. Minneapolis: Fortress. Historical and Philological Studies on Judaism Vol24 pp. Dialogue with Trypho.
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In The Jewish Chronicle website. Here the LXX diverges wholly. The writer of 1—5 therefore used the Hebrew text and presumably wrote in Hebrew. Charles, The Book of Enoch London , p. Two passages are central to it The first is Deuteronomy … the second is Numbers —4 Michael E. Stone Selected studies in pseudepigrapha and apocrypha with special reference to the Armenian Tradition Studia in Veteris Testamenti Pseudepigrapha No 9 p.